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Gonstead, Diversified & Activator Chiropractic Techniques

A close look into the top three treatment methods in chiropractic. Learn why the Activator methods of chiropractic care are now ranked as the most effective for neck pain, back pain, slipped discs, scoliosis, joint pain, and sports injuries.

Overview Of The Three Most Common Chiropractic Treatment Techniques

Gonstead, Diversified, and Activator techniques are the top three chiropractic treatment methods. Collectively, they represent over 95% of what chiropractors use when treating their patients. In this article, we provide some background information on all three. However, before we begin our discussion, let’s briefly go over the purpose of chiropractic.

Chiropractic care is the most effective treatment method for many conditions such as neck pain, back pain, scoliosis, sciatica, slipped disc, joint pain, sports injuries, spondylolisthesis, and spondylosis. There are hundreds of other conditions that a Doctor of Chiropractic treats. Moreover, there are thousands of published studies that reveal the health benefits of chiropractic care. Some reporting chiropractic and spinal manipulations (adjustments) to be two times more effective than traditional medical care for the spine.

There are over two hundred chiropractic adjustment techniques. Some use the hands-on or manually provided forms, while others treat with a handheld instrument. Also, there are overlaps in both the manual and handheld instrument techniques, each having some degree of uniqueness.

What Are The Best Methods Of Chiropractic Treatment?

Gonstead, Diversified, and Activator are the best three chiropractic treatment methods. Yes, these three methods top the list. However, in our opinion, treatment rendered through an Activator is better than Gonstead or Diversified. There are several reasons why we treat patients through an Activator instrument. We are going to cover them in the subsequent sections. First, let’s see what makes a given technique superior to others.

The best chiropractic adjustments are segment-specific (targeted), short lever, and high velocity while maintaining low amplitude. More specifically, a short lever applies to the specific contact on the vertebra, and the high velocity refers to the quick application of force. The low amplitude is relating to force depth.

Chiropractic adjusting procedures via the long or short lever approaches induce motion and increase mobility. The manual method of chiropractic adjustment (Gonstead & Diversified)  impacts multiple segments instead of restricting the correction to a specific spinal segment or point performed by the activator method. The hands-on chiropractic adjustments (short or long lever methods) lack specificity in targeting a single segment or joint, and as such, they are deemed non-specific.

How Specific Are The Chiropractic Techniques Provided In A Side-Lying Position Or Those Requiring Rotation Of The Neck & Back?

Procedures such as the side posture adjustment (lying on one’s side for the low back treatment), anterior thoracic adjustment, and the rotatory cervical or neck treatment accompany are examples of non-specific therapies.

The two commonly used chiropractic techniques that require a side-lying position are the Gonstead chiropractic method and the Diversified techniques. Both of these methods are not as specific as the Activator chiropractic methods of treatment. In other words, the Gonstead and diversified methods are non-specific as they provide mobilizations for multiple segments. To summarize, they lack the precision needed for targeting a specific vertebra or bone.

Generally speaking, the Diversified and Gonstead chiropractic techniques are the methods where a “cracking” or audible popping sound is heard. In other words, they induce general mobilizations that cause an audible popping sound.

General mobilization is best for non-acute patients presenting with multiple hypo-mobile segments. In our opinion, patients presenting with acute conditions, torn discs, inflamed joints, or injured soft tissues are better treated through targeted methods that allow precision.

Methods incorporating precision targeting are better tolerated than the rotatory (twisting) techniques through Diversified or Gonstead chiropractic methods. Patient tolerance is an essential factor. Most manual methods require the specific positioning of a patient in need of care.

Are Activator, Diversified, And Gonstead Chiropractic Treatments Painful?

It would be best if you did not have to hurt to get better. Pain is a warning sign! Therefore, it concerns if you experience pain during chiropractic treatment. If pain s felt, it may indicate that the procedure was too aggressive. Patients with spinal disc or spinal joint disorders can experience pain with methods that twist or rotate the spine.

The activator method of chiropractic treatment is possibly the only chiropractic technique that is painless. Patients in pain will almost always feel a varying degree of discomfort with most pre-treatment positioning of the manual methods such as the Diversified method or the Gonstead technique.

For example, a back pain patient may experience more discomfort when rolled forward from their side-lying position with a flexed knee. An increase in pain or discomfort at the time of positioning or during the adjustment process causes an involuntary or instinctive muscle tightening. The same applies to those receiving care from a rotational treatment for neck pain. The instinctive and spontaneous muscle tension is an uncontrollable automated response known as paraphysiological muscle guarding or response.

Importance Of Paraphysiological Muscle Response During The Chiropractic Adjustment

Your nervous system controls the entire body. This controlling mechanism is voluntary or involuntary, impacting every cell or tissue, including muscles, ligaments, joints, and spinal discs.

Physiological muscle response occurs when a muscle is stimulated, resulting in the contraction or tightening of that muscle. Paraphysiological muscle response is an automatic guarding mechanism that protects us from injury. It occurs when our body or part of our body is positioned oddly. Let’s look at the Gonstead, Diversified, and Activator methods and their impact on physiological muscle response.

The manual methods (Diversified and Gonstead) require the patient to be positioned lying on one side with the knee flexed or neck bent and rotated towards one side during neck treatments. Both positions are unnatural and uncomfortable, especially for those in pain. These unnatural pre-treatment positions usually cause uncontrolled muscle guarding (paraphysiological muscle response).

Discomfort and uncontrolled guarding are present in all pain patients in pre-treatment set-ups. Prolonged patient positioning yields higher degrees of discomfort and paraphysiological muscle guarding (response).

Adjusting (treating) patients during an uncontrolled guarding (paraphysiological muscle response) or discomfort is the leading factor in aggravating symptoms. Patients who experience higher degrees of discomfort (pain) or exhibit intense guarding may even worsen. Therefore, pain patients and those presenting with acute conditions get better results from methods that avoid guarding or cause an increase in discomfort or pain during treatments.

The instrument-assisted methods, as provided by the Activator, prevent muscle guarding or incontrollable subconscious tightening. Patients treated by an Activator instrument are not required to maintain an uncomfortable position, as such treatments are provided in a natural, relaxed state.

Should You Avoid the Rotational Chiropractic Treatments?

While the rotational chiropractic adjustments feel good, they may be harmful. Published research in reputable chiropractic journals calls for non-rotatory methods of chiropractic treatments for slipped discs, sciatica, and scoliosis. Also, patients who suffer from spondylolisthesis, spondylosis, and degenerative joint disease should avoid the rotatory chiropractic treatment methods. 

The main reason for this is to avoid further injury or damage. Rotational methods and techniques are associated with an audible popping sound or cracking. We understand that the cracking of the spine feels good for most. Still, if you have a degenerated disc, slipped disc (bulging or herniated disc), sprained back, or scoliosis, then the rotatory methods of chiropractic treatments are not for you. Let’s assess the Gonstead, Diversified, and Activator systems of care and their rotational components.

Of the Gonstead, Diversified, and Activator, Diversified and Gonstead are both rotatory chiropractic techniques. However, the degree of rotatory movements is less with the Gonstead method. Non-the-less, there is a rotatory component, especially when the patient is larger than the chiropractor. Larger patients treated through Diversified or Gonstead’s side-posture methods are often challenging for the short or small chiropractor. Shorter or physically weak chiropractors may apply more force and rotation to overcome height or strength issues.

What Is The Best Chiropractic Treatment Technique For Expecting & New Mothers

Prenatal and postnatal chiropractic care is beneficial for both new mothers and expecting ones. Focused evidence-based chiropractic care can help with pregnancy aches and pains without harmful side effects. However, pregnancy brings changes. And these changes impact the type of physiotherapy or chiropractic care you need. For starters, during the later sates of pregnancy and for several weeks after their delivery, hormonal levels are at their peaks.

The ovaries and the placenta produces the Relaxin hormone. Relaxin is essential for the reproductive system, during delivery, and post-delivery. It is the hormone that prepares your muscles, ligaments, and joints to deliver your baby during childbirth—Relaxin peaks during your first trimester and again a few weeks before delivery. During the first trimester, it helps with the implantation of the fetus into the uterus wall. In the later stages of the pregnancy, it helps prepare the mother’s body for the delivery. As the name applies, Relaxin relaxes all soft tissue.

Expecting and new mothers should avoid aggressive physiotherapy procedures and rotatory chiropractic techniques such as the Gonstead and Diversified methods. Gonstead chiropractic treatment during your pregnancy or up to 6 months after birth can cause damage due to increased Relaxin levels. A better alternative to these techniques is the Activator method of chiropractic. Prenatal and postnatal chiropractic care is best through the Activator methods. The best prenatal and postnatal method of chiropractic care is the Activator method for new and expecting mothers.

Unlike the Diversified and Gonstead chiropractors, an Activator chiropractor will not twist or rotate the spine. Visit our related page to learn more about prenatal and postnatal chiropractic and physiotherapy treatments.  

Forceful Versus the High-Velocity Chiropractic Treatment Or Adjustment

Gonstead, Diversified, and Activator treatments aim to restore stability in joints and soft tissues. As mentioned, there are hundreds of methods used by chiropractors, some of which are forceful. Techniques that use more force can cause soreness or complications. Patients with acute conditions such as a disc disorder, sprained or sprained spine, or joint shouldn’t opt for treatments through a forceful method.

Generally speaking, the vast majority of chiropractic techniques are minimally forceful. However, even the minimally force chiropractic treatment methods can aggravate a spinal disc disorder or an injured joint. The degree of the forcefulness of chiropractic treatment depends not just on the technique but also on the chiropractor providing the treatment.

The three most common chiropractic techniques along with a short overview:

  1. Diversified Technique: A rotatory method that involves some force.
  2. Gonstead Technique: Mildly rotatory methods with minimal force
  3. Activator Chiropractic methods: Non-rotatory methods without force

It’s important to understand what each one does and how it can impact the human body. This article summarizes the three most commonly used methods (Gonstead, Diversified, and Activator), starting with the Activator method. Here is a look at the activator technique’s value and why it has become the number one option for chiropractors looking to provide targeted corrective care.

What Is The Activator Method?

The activator method refers to a unique treatment system for treating neck pain, back pain, joint pain, sports injuries, scoliosis, slipped disc patients, and those who present with headaches or migraines.

It is a method that is completed using an “Activator Adjusting Instrument. The Activator is a hand-held device that delivers small doses of high-velocity impulses into the spine or joints. The aim is to maximize stability and improve mobility in the vertebra or joints. It’s important to note this technique is a direct replacement for a manual technique such as the Diversified or Gonstead methods.

There are several advantages with the Activator Adjusting Instrument or Activator Chiropractic Methods (ACM) treatments. It provides precision targeting joints and spine at a degree impossible with the manual or hands-on Gonstead or Diversified method. The depth of treatment is also controlled at better levels with an activator. ACM is a well-researched, non-rotatory, non-forceful method. Its’ proven clinical successes are the main reason why so many chiropractic doctors have started to use it as their primary means of care. 

The Advantages Of ACM Treatments

Activator offers a controlled and direct low-amplitude high-velocity impulse to manipulate joints of tissues. The primary reason chiropractors prefer to use this technique is the precision targeting and velocity of the treatment impulse.

We have provided additional factors why Gonstead and Diversified practitioners are turning to Activator Methods of care below:

  • Non-Force: Activator’s higher velocity has replaced the need for force
  • Depth Control: Activator allows better control over the depth of a given treatment. Depth control is critical to spine and sport injury patients
  • Doesn’t aggravate or complicate condition: Flare-ups, aggravations, and complications are non-existent when treating patients with the activator
  • Faster recovery: Better targeting and non-force features of the Activator have reduced recovery from pain or injury significantly

The manual hands-on methods in positions may cause guarding or trigger an involuntary muscle tightening, especially with longer positioning time. Treatment of an acute patient by the manual method incorporates a longer positioning time. A prolonged setup can lead to tears, aggravation, and general discomfort, which is why the activator method is adored. When the muscles aren’t tensing up, it’s easier to treat the underlying issue and get to the bottom of things as soon as possible. The Activator keeps treatment centralized without creating unwanted constraints in the target area.

An Overview Of The Gonstead Chiropractic Technique

Dr. Clarence Selmer Gonstead was born in 1898 and passed away in 1978. He founded the Gonstead chiropractic technique in the 1940s. In the 1960s, Chiropractic Universities started teaching the Gonstead technique. Today, it is one of the top three most utilized chiropractic treatment techniques in the world. Dr. Gonstead developed several chiropractic concepts. These include primary and secondary subluxations, as well as the concept of compensation. According to Dr. Gonstead, there is compensation for every subluxation. These theories are incorporated in all chiropractic methods, including those delivered through the Diversified chiropractic techniques and the Activator. Dr. Gonstead is the most notable researcher on theories of spinal stability through chiropractic treatment.

According to the Gonstead method, the pelvis establishes the spine’s foundation. The pelvis is the part of the body where the hip bones attach to the lower back. Gonstead practitioners believe that slight misalignments of the pelvis cause structural instabilities in segments above. It is for this reason why Gonstead practitioners always require full spine x-rays that include the pelvis. Moreover, it is the primary reason most Gonstead chiropractors treat the pelvis as the actual cause of all issues.

How The Gonstead Therapy Of Pelvic Unleveling As Cause Of Pain Aas Debunked By MRI?

According to this method, the misalignments put much pressure on the spinal discs, causing them to slip or herniate through. However, we must mention that this theory has been debunked. Researchers have proven the spinal disc degenerative changes as the primary reason for the slipped disc, joint pain, and misalignments of the spine and the pelvis with the advent of MRI assessment. As the disc degenerates (wear out), it places undue stress on spinal discs and spinal joints. Accumulated stresses result in minor alignment issues of the spinal bones and joints of the pelvis. The hallmark of a misaligned or subluxated joint is swelling or inflammation. In other words, a misaligned joint is an irritated joint. Irritated joints will always present with some degree of an inflammatory process.

Analysis Of The Diversified Chiropractic Technique

The Diversified method of chiropractic treatment is the most common type of chiropractic adjustment. It is the primary technique taught to chiropractic students. An estimated 95% of chiropractors are proficient in the Diversified methods of chiropractic treatment. In short, it is the technique most patients are familiar with. Diversified adjustment is somewhat similar to the Gonstead method as it entails a high-velocity, low-amplitude thrust, resulting in cavitation or “cracking” (popping sounds). Both have some degree of scissoring movements or rotations, but Diversified is reliant more on the rotatory or scissoring system of treatment.

Dr. D. D. Palmer developed the Diversified chiropractic technique. Dr. Palmer is the founder of the chiropractic profession. He was the first to coin the term subluxation. Dr. Palmer discovered the profession of Chiropractic in 1895. The Diversified technique became the main chiropractic treatment method with the Palmer School of Chiropractic emergence in 1904. The reason why it is taught to all chiropractic students is that of the fact that the professions’ founder discovered it.

If you spend enough time in the chiropractic community, you hear many dos and don’ts. Some of the ‘rules taught to up-and-coming chiropractors make sense, but some are merely rules of thumb that get repeated without full understanding. All too often, newly qualified chiropractors accept rules as gospel and repeat them, not realizing why they were taught to avoid certain moves or why certain adjustments are performed in a given way.

How MRI Debunked The Gonstead Theory Of Pelvic Misalignment As The Cause For The Subluxated Or Misaligned Spine?

We mentioned that MRI had debunked the pelvis as sources of subluxations or misalignments; let’s see how? Review of pelvic and Lumbar MRI of patients with low back pain (subluxations or misalignments) has confirmed the existence of degenerative changes and inflammatory changes in spinal joints in the absence of an inflammatory reaction in the sacroiliac joint (pelvis).

MRI is the gold standard for assessing spine and joint conditions. It debuted in 1982, three years after the passing of the dearly departed Dr. Clarence Gonstead. During his lifetime, the best means of assessing the spine was through full spine x-rays. We are confident that much of Dr. Gonstead’s theories would have changed; had this modality been discovered during his lifetime. He would not have required the full spine x-rays or base his argument of subluxation on the pelvis, for starters. The contributions he has made are significant, without a doubt. Every chiropractor is forever indebted to him regardless of the techniques they use.

Difference Between Gonstead & Diversified Chiropractic Techniques

Rotation is taught as dangerous, and young students are told to avoid rotational prestress for fear of severe, adverse outcomes. Such outcomes are unlikely if the chiropractor is well trained and provides the treatment carefully. However, scoliotic patients, moderately inflamed joints, and those diagnosed with spinal disc damage such as tears or herniations may experience complications with Gonstead and Diversified methods.

As mentioned earlier, the “scissoring” move, especially for neck or low back treatments, are the reason for these complications. Dr. Gonstead advocated a non-scissoring move. However, performing Gonstead without scissoring hands is hard for new chiropractors. It takes at least a decade to master! So, most still incorporate the “scissoring” into the Gonstead method. The scissoring two-hand move is evident in the newly trained Gonstead practitioner.

Few Chiropractic Universities teach Gonstead techniques to students. The main reason being the time it consumes in becoming highly proficient. Those who are not taught during their studies will have a difficult time becoming proficient. Most have to rely on weekend courses to learn the method. Weekend courses offer limited training, yet another reason why many Gonstead practitioners incorporate the Diversified scissoring moves into the Gonstead technique.

The two-hand ‘scissoring’ methods, as provided through the Diversified and Gonstead, produce an audible crack (popping sound). It may even feel good. Yes, the cracking sound is satisfying, and the patient may also enjoy a feeling of released pressure, but if the adjustment weren’t the right one, the pain would return very quickly.

Final Thoughts

The Diversified, Activator and Gonstead techniques are the chiropractic treatment methods that have stood the test of time. In general, the non-force activator method provides all-encompassing control without further aggravation. This is essential in managing severe herniation and canal stenosis; otherwise, the condition can worsen over time. The process is efficient, safer, and better when weighing various pros and cons.

After thorough research, we choose the Activator method as our primary technique. Several factors looked at; we have listed some of them below:

    • Proven research-backed method,
    • The best method of care for sports injuries,
    • Precision treatment for the spine spinal disc issues such as disc bulges, herniation, extrusions), sciatica, spondylosis, spondylolisthesis, and the scoliotic spine,
    • Ability to target a single spinal segment,
  • Non-rotatory method (no twisting or scissoring moves involved as it harms damaged or injured soft tissues or joints),
  • High-velocity non-force method,
  • Provides corrective care without aggravations,
  • A tolerable system of by the injured, weak, young or elderly,
  • Reproducibility time and again,
  • Dependent on the practitioner’s knowledge, but not their size (Diversified or Gonstead methods are dependent on practitioner size and strength)

In our assessments of the Gonstead, Diversified, and Activator techniques based on the criteria mentioned above, the Activator topped the list. If you are in pain and wondering which to chose, chose treatments via the Activator. We are not an Activator method-only center. We hope you have found this article helpful. Contact our main center at 03 2093 1000 to learn more Gonstead, Diversified, and Activator techniques today. 

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